Philip J. Schwarz
Director, Stratford Hall Seminar on Slavery

Scholarly Articles and Essays

"'To Conciliate the Jarring Interests': William Smith, Thomas Hutchinson, and the Massachusetts-New York Boundary, 1771-73." New York
     Historical Society Quarterly 59 (1975): 299-319.

"Clark T. Moorman, Quaker Emancipator." Quaker History 69 (1980): 27-35.

"Gabriel's Challenge; Slaves and Crime in Late Eighteenth-Century Virginia." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 90 (1982):  283-309.

"Forging the Shackles: The Development of Virginia's Criminal Code for Slaves." In Ambivalent Legacy: A Legal History of the South, David J.
     Bodenhamer and James W. Ely, Jr., eds. (Jackson, Miss., 1984), 125-46. Reprinted in Paul Finkelman, ed. Articles on American Slavery 18 vols.
     (New York, 1988), XI, no. 17.

"The Transportation of Slaves from Virginia." Slavery and Abolition 7 (1986): 3-28.

"Emancipators, Protectors, and Anomalies: Free Black Slaveowners in Virginia." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 95 (1987):

"Crime," in Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery, Randall M. Miller and John David Smith, eds. (New York, 1988), 158-63.

"'A Sense of Their Own Power': Self-Determination in Recent Writings on Black Americans." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 97 (1989):
     279- 310.

"Peter Vivian Daniel," solicited biographical sketch in A Biographical Dictionary of U.S. Supreme Court Justices, Melvin I. Urofsky, ed.
     (Westport, Conn., 1994).

"Virginia" and "The Virginia Society for the Abolition of Slavery," in the Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery. New York, 1998.

"The Gilliams' Dilemma." In Afro-Virginian History & Culture , ed. John Saillant. New York, 1999.


The Jarring Interests: New York's Boundary Makers, 1664-1776. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1979.

Twice Condemned: Slaves and the Criminal Laws of Virginia, 1705-1865 . Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988.
Slave Laws in Virginia. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Migrants Against Slavery: Virginians and the Nation. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001.

Editor, Slavery at the Home of George Washington. Mount Vernon: Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, 2001.